Periodontal disease is a progressive condition which leads to severe inflammation and tooth loss if left untreated. Antibiotic treatments can be used in combination with scaling and root planning, curettage, surgery or as a stand-alone treatment to help reduce bacteria before and/or after many common periodontal procedures.
Antibiotic treatments come in several different types, including oral forms and topical gels which are applied directly into the gum pockets. Research has shown that in the case of acute periodontal infection, refractory periodontal disease, prepubertal periodontal disease and juvenile periodontal disease, antibiotic treatments have been incredibly effective.
Antibiotics can be prescribed at a low dose for longer term use, or as a short term medication to deter bacteria from re-colonizing.
Oral antibiotics tend to affect the whole body and are less commonly prescribed than topical gel. Here are some specific details about several different types of oral antibiotics:
Tetracycline antibiotics – Antibiotics which include tetracycline hydrochloride, doxycycline, and minocycline are the primary drugs used in periodontal treatment. They have antibacterial properties, reduce inflammation and block collagenase (a protein which destroys the connective tissue).
Macrolide antibiotics – This group of antibiotics has proven effective at reducing inflammation, and can also reduce bacterial growth associated with periodontitis.
Metronidazole – This antibiotic is generally used in combination with amoxicillin or tetracycline to combat inflammation and bacterial growth in severe or chronic periodontitis.
Topical Gels and Strips
The biggest advantage of the direct delivery of antibiotics to the surfaces of the gums is that the whole body is not affected. For isolated deeper pockets, direct placement of antibiotics tend to be preferred over their oral counterparts. They are extremely effective and easily placed without any discomfort when used after scaling and root planing procedures.
Our office has had wonderful results in pocket reduction and improved pocket health with the Minocycline antibiotic, Arestin. It can be placed by the dentist or hygienist on the same day of your dental scaling and cleaning and requires no additional follow-up appointment until your next scheduled recall.
Most patients report improvement with decreased bleeding, decreased inflammation, and a healthier appearance to the gum tissues.
If you have any questions about periodontal disease or antibiotic treatments, please ask your dentist.